FMEA - Failure Mode and Effect Analysis

Papers, Publications and Books

Paper from the Navy Proactive Maintenance

Abstract: Having a persistent operational requirement, yet faced with a dwindling budget and shrinking force structure, the Navy has no choice but to shift its approach to maintenance. The Navy must move its focus from a repair function to a high level mission function responsible for "putting ordnance on target". We must proactively develop the strategies, procedures, climate, skills and tools necessary to:

- seek out and correct those equipments running below design specifications which have a negative impact on the mission of the ship.

- solve the root cause of recurring, premature equipment failures.

- use fewer resources.

In other words, become more productive!

An approach is offered that not only provides a process for proactive maintenance activity, but also addresses the necessary re-engineering of individual equipment/system maintenance processes. This re-engineering effort is required if we are to meet the top level guidance of OPNAVINST 4700.7 Series (i.e., utilization of Continuous Maintenance, Reliability-Centered Maintenance and Condition-Based Maintenance methodologies/ technologies) and thus increase Navy maintenance productivity.

R.O.S.E. Informatik White Paper On Failure Modes And Effects Analysis

Failure Modes and Effects Analysis has long been a way to predict the consequences of failures in complex systems. FMEA has been a required part of many aerospace and military projects for many years. A number of support tools have been developed to aid in the time-consuming process of performing FMEA's. These tools generally collected data, kept it organized and produced reports according to Mil Stds. But the process of identifying the failure characteristics of individual components and determining the effects of those failures as they propagate across the systems in which they are embedded has been mainly a manual and expensive process. Powerful workstations and modern mathematical techniques are now making it possible to automate FMEA and make it a routine and affordable part of the engineering design process. This allows higher quality products to be produced faster, cheaper and more competitively. RODON is at the forefront of the new modeling and diagnosis technology that is allowing this to happen.

Failure Modes and Effects Analyses (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL)

The purpose of the FMEA is to identify potential catastrophic and critical failures of the FOS critical real-time functions so that susceptibility to the failures and their effects can be reduced or eliminated from the ECS system. The analysis was directed to reveal any single point failures in the FOS components that provide critical real-time functions so that such failures can be completely eliminated. In the event that potential critical failures cannot be eliminated, mitigation plans will be identified to ensure that the effect of a failure on the overall ECS system is minimal. Since the individual failure modes are listed and evaluated in an orderly fashion, the FMEA also serves to verify the FOS Real Time design integrity, identify undesirable failure modes and document reliability risks. FMEA results not only provide design guidance, but can be used advantageously during maintenance planning analysis, logistics support analysis, hazard analysis, and fault recovery management design.

Paper can be downloaded from site

Short introduction to FMEA based on "FMEA in Design, Manufacture and Service" - a book on the complete methodology of FMEA'S from their history through to practical examples and case histories. This is the second edition of this book - the first edition was titled "Murphy's Law Overruled"

On-line versions of the following FMEA papers of the Centre for Intelligent Systems, Department of Computer Science, University of Wales are available as Postscript or PDF (Go to the site for downloading):

Multiple Fault Diagnosis from FMEA
This paper explores the use of automatically generated FMEA results for building diagnostic applications.
Towards model switching for diagnosis of dynamic systems
In this paper, the issue of utilising multiple models for diagnosis of dynamic systems is explored. The paper originally appeared in Proc SAFEPROCESS'97, 564-570, Hull, UK, 1997
Function-directed Electrical Design Analysis
Start with this paper. It gives reasonable technical detail about much of what we do, and is only out of date for three reasons. Our FMEA tool is now sold commercially as AutoSteve, not Flame; some of the shortcomings of the representation have been overcome by allowing components to be represented as Statecharts; the design verification work has made a great deal more progress (papers coming shortly). An updated version of this paper appeared in AI in Engineering 12(4), pp445-456, 1998.
Challenges for Qualitative Electrical Reasoning in Automotive Circuit Simulation
This paper was in the Proceedings of the 11th International Qualitative Reasoning Workshop (QR97). It looks at our experience of modelling different kinds of car circuits, and discusses the compromises involved in modelling such circuits, and the improvements to modelling capabilities that might be made.
Combining Functional and Structural Reasoning for Safety Analysis of Electrical Designs
This paper gives an overall summary of the Aberystwyth work in electrical system design analysis (FMEA, sneak circuit analysis and fault tree generation). An updated version of this paper appears in the Knowledge Engineering Review vol 12 (3), pp271-287, 1997.
Effortless Incremental FMEA
From Proceedings 42nd Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS-96).
Failure modes and effects analysis is often performed late in the design lifecycle of an electrical circuit, because of the amount of effort that is necessary to complete an FMEA. Automated FMEA generation significantly reduces this time, but brings even greater benefits when repeating an FMEA. Incremental FMEA allows the initial FMEA to be carried out early in the design, when changes are cheap to make, without incurring heavy penalties when the design does change.
Automated Sneak Identification
An updated version of this paper appeared in Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, vol 9(4), pp423-427, September 1996. It illustrates how qualitative simulation of electrical circuits, plus knowledge of expected function, can be used to identify the occurrence of unexpected events in a circuit.

Paper: Software Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis - Position Paper, by Chris Loftus, David Pugh and Ian Pyle. (1996)

This position paper presents a definition of software failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (SWFMECA), explains how it relates to the engineering of software-based systems and presents an open set of pertinent issues which, we feel, need further investigation. The aim of the paper is to provide a basis for future research work by defining problems where solutions are important for industrial engineering.
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis : FMEA from Theory to Execution D.H. Stamatis / Hardcover / Published 1995 / Amazon Price: $70.00
Basics of FMEA : Robin E. McDermott, et al / Paperback / Published 1995 / Amazon Price: $7.95 + $1.35 special surcharge
FMEA, Author's Edition Paul Palady / Hardcover / Published 1997 / Amazon Price: $39.95

Use our link to Amazon.

Paper: Failure Mode & Effects Analysis By Jerry Steinbrink, Editor-in-Chief (in Swedish)

FMEA-Feleffektanalys. Konstruktions-FMEA. Process-FMEA
Instruktionsblad 90307
Pris 150 kr. Blankett i block om 50 ex

Konstruktions-FMEA. Process-FMEA
Instruktionsblad 90401, 90402
Instruktionsbladen består av FMEA-formulär samt förklarar hur man med hjälp av dessa utför Konstruktions- respektive Process-FMEA.
Pris 45 kr. Instruktionsblad i 10 ex

L'AMDEC, un atout pour les PMI

5191 - L'AMDEC, avec l'arbre des défaillances, représente l'un des outils puissants dont l'industrie dispose, aujourd'hui, pour les études de fiabilité comme pour celles de sécurité. Ses possibilités, même en l'absence de données quantifiées sur les taux de défaillance et sur les modes de défaillance des composants font qu'il permet d'avancer, même lorsque l'on tâtonne, et de concrétiser des solutions à un problème qui soient plus fiables et plus sûres que la solution initialement mise au point. C'est à une découverte de cette précieuse technique fort mal connue, en général, dans les entreprises que conduit cet ouvrage. Il représente, en fait, une recueil de conférences sur le sujet prononcées récemment par les spécialistes provenant d'industries les plus diverses.

Ecrit par Cétim Conférence , Edité par - CETIM -

A Web based FMECA Interface Linked to an Expert System for Oil Analysis

Murray Wiseman
Predictive Maintenance Corporation
400 Sauve West, Suite 101
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
H3L 1Z8
(514) 383-6330

William Denson
Reliability Analysis Center
201 Mill Street
Rome, NY 13440 (315)

Abstract: A World Wide Web (WWW) interface to a FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis) building tool and database is described in this paper. The WWW FMECA has been linked to an oil analysis expert system.

Book: FMEA Authors edition

Introducing exclusive new developments adopted by the industry standard for design and process risk analysis and risk management. These new developments, along with several other new strategies, were developed over the past nine years in approximately 200 seminars conducted at 14 universities and 45 corporations by the author. The developments and strategies presented in this book will restore FMEA as the universal tool for risk analysis and risk management for both design and process.

Book: Restoring the Effectiveness of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. The original case study introducing three new developments to increase the effectiveness of developing FMEA's: The FMEA Input Form, The FMEA Area Chart and The FMEA Screening Matrix

Book : Failure modes and effects analysis: Predicting & preventing problems before they occur, by Paul Palady

This book provides a detailed, step-by-step analysis of the fmea process and describes the new developments in fmea, which may make it more effective: the area chart, input form and key cause matrix.

Title: Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
Category: Quality/FMEA's
Author: Stamatis
ISBN/Stock Code: 087389300x
Publisher: Quality Press
Media: Book Hardcover

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis. The material describes the process of conducting a FMEA, including how FMEA relates to ISO 9000. It establishes the legal need for FMEA and its relation to product liability. This book fulfills the FMEA requirements of AIAG, SAE, J1739, and MIL-STD-1629-A.

The criteria used to evaluate Severity, Occurence and Detection can vary by industry. The following example comes from the automotive industry. Quality Associates works with your team to ensure valid criteria are used consistently.

FMEA Reference Guides: These reference cards illustrate the methods used to determine when corrective action should be taken, the criteria used to choose Severity, Occurrence and Detection numbers and some guidelines for auditing FMEA's per QS9000. On the site you will also find: Design FMEA Quick Reference Guide for Vehicles; Process FMEA Quick Reference Guide for Vehicles ; Severity, Occurrence, and Detection Criteria for Design ; Guidelines for auditing FMEA's per QS 9000.

Worth a Visit

Failure Modes & Effects Analysis "A Modified Approach"

Presented by: Kenneth C. Latino, National Petroleum Refineries Association (NPRA) Maintenance Conference, May 1996

Excellent paper (Guest contribution Jan – Febr. 2000)

The following articles were written by RCI Consultants, RCI Clients, Colleagues and Editors from popular trade magazines. Most of these articles have been presented at various conferences or published in various trade magazines and some were written just because the consultants enjoy writing on the particular subjects and would like to share the information with you!
(Go to the site for down loading)

  • Root Cause Failure Analysis: Interpretation of Fatigue Failures
    Neville Sachs, Reliability Magazine, August 1999
  • Root Cause Failure Analysis: Understanding Mechanical Failures
    Neville Sachs, Reliability Magazine, June 1999
  • Eli Lilly Incident Profile - Finding the Root Cause
    Jeffrey S. Brown, Process Engineer, Eli Lilly & Ken Storey, Freelance Writer.
  • RCFA Provides Whirlpool Corporation with Immediate Improvements
    Robert A. Reiff, Maintenance Project Engineer, Whirlpool Corp.
  • Criteria for CMMS to Satisfy Facility Reliability Needs
    William C. Worsham, Reliability Center, Inc., API Pipeline Conference, April 20, 1999
  • Why Root Cause Analysis Doesn't Always Work
    Robert J. Latino, Reliability Center, Inc., 1999
  • The RCFA Paradox
    Robert J. Latino, Reliability Center, Inc., 1999
  • The "Soft Side" of Root Cause Analysis
    Robert J. Latino, Reliability Center, Inc., 1999
  • How To Select the "Right" Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCFA)
    Methodology & Vendor
    Robert J. Latino, Reliability Center, Inc., 1999
  • The Failure Dilemma:
    How do I move towards Proaction when I work in such a Reactive environment?
    Robert J. Latino, Reliability Center, Inc., 1999
  • The Essentials of Conducting a Successful Root Cause Failure Analysis
    Robert J. Latino, Paper Industry Management Conference, October 1998
  • RCFA Saves Inland Steel $1.15 Million
    John Van Auken, Inland Steel Co., Maintenance Technology, June 1998
  • What is Root Cause Failure Analysis?
    Kenneth C. Latino, May 1998
  • How has Root Cause Failure Analysis Failed to Meet It’s Potential?
    Kenneth C. Latino, P/PM Technology, December 1997
  • The Power of Failure Analysis to Eliminate Process Interruptions.
    Charles J. Latino, Paper Industry Maintenance Conference, October 1997

Book: The Basics of FMEA (76 pages soft cover) covers the essential steps required to conduct both design and process FMEAs. It is a handy guide you will refer to time and time again as you and your team work through the FMEA process. The Basics of FMEA is a convenient hand book that:
- Explains failure mode and effect analysis simply and concisely.
– Discusses when to use FMEAs (e.g., during design, manufacturing, etc.).
– Shows how to perform FMEAs step by step.

Paper: Idea Paper: A Failure Analysis Matrix, Michael C. Signor, discusses a specific approach to FMEA:

This paper provides guidelines on the use of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for ensuring that reliability is designed into typical semiconductor manufacturing equipment. These are steps taken during the design phase of the equipment life cycle to ensure that reliability requirements have been properly allocated and that a process for continuous improvement exists. The guide provides information and examples regarding the proper use of FMEA as it applies to semiconductor manufacturing equipment. The guide attempts to encourage the use of FMEAs to cut down cost and avoid the embarrassment of discovering problems (i.e., defects, failures, downtime, scrap loss) in the field. The FMEA is a proactive approach to solving potential failure modes. Software for executing an FMEA is available from SEMATECH, Technology Transfer #92091302A-XFR, SEMATECH Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Software Tool.

Risk-Based Inspection
October 1996 SIB-96-176

Over the last few years, there have been several industry initiatives to develop risk-based inspection programs as alternatives to currently required ASME Code, Section XI Inservice Inspection (ISI) programs. These efforts have been initiated by owners groups, the Electric Power Research Institute and ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Subcommittee XI. A working group has been established under Subcommittee XI to study the application of risk-based technologies to ISI and to develop the necessary Code changes to permit their use in lieu of current requirements. There are also a number of ongoing industry risk-based pilot studies to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods.

The overall goal of these efforts is ultimately to allow the use of risk assessment, plus an understanding of component-specific degradation mechanisms, to establish an effective plant integrity management program which maintains plant safety, while at the same time reducing the industry and regulatory burden associated with current ISI requirements. Preliminary results from the pilot studies have shown that the application of risk-based techniques will allow nuclear plants to reduce the examination scope of current ISI programs by as much as 60% to 80%, without sacrificing safety. A brief discussion of the ongoing programs will follow.

Risk –Informed Regulation of Marine Systems Using FMEA by LT Robb Wilcox, P.E. of U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety Center, Washington, D.C.

Abstract: The marine industry is recognizing the powerful techniques that can be used to perform risk analysis of marine systems. One technique that has been applied in both national and international marine regulations is Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). This risk analysis tool assumes a failure mode occurs in a system/component through some failure mechanism; the effect of this failure is then evaluated. A risk ranking can be developed in a more detailed variant of FMEA called Failure Mode and Effects Criticality Analysis (FMECA).

 Last update: December 14, 2000

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